| Ecological Descriptors
||Disc to 150
Body dorso-ventrally flattened, with greatly enlarged pectoral fins, which give them a disc-like shape. Snout and tips of fins pointed. Back vary in color from brown to gray and black. Underside white. Mouth on the underside of the head. Tail whip-like, with one or two venomous spines at the base and with fin on underside towards tip.
Inhabit sandy areas, especially around reefs. Lie on the bottom, often covered with sand, down to 50m. The diet of this species consists of benthic and infaunal invertebrates and demersal teleosts. The most common prey are decapod crustaceans such as alphaeid, penaeid and callianasid shrimp and brachyuran crabs.
Non-placental vivipary, with litters of 2 to 10 pups are born at 17 to 34 cm disc width (DW), after a gestation of 4.5 to 7.5 months, and maturity is reached at 51 and 75 to 80 cm DW (males and females, respectively). Reproduction is annual.
(C) Dr P Ryan/ RyanPhotographic